Fungi 2020

Updated October 2020

The fungi of Childwall Woods and Fields 

Fungi are a separate kingdom of living things, different from animals and plants. They feed on organic material, reproduce by means of spores and present themselves in a variety of beautiful shapes, sizes and colours.

 

 

John McCombs 1/5/20

 

Biologists have identified over 100,000 different types of fungus, and depending on the season many can be found in Childwall Woods and Fields. The ones on this page have been identified as accurately as possible however with so many types existing, errors are possible although every care has been taken to give accurate information. Let me know if you spot an error. bcfcwf@gmail.com

You may want to pick some of the mushrooms you find but you will need a good identification book or App to make sure you know what each one is. There are many unpalatable and some poisonous species that you will want to avoid.

 

 

Some terms used on this page :

 Saprobic – Absorbs nutrients from decaying wood

Mycelia – The network of branched threads connecting fungal bodies.

Gills – The pattern of ribs under the cap of the mushroom

Stipe – The stalk of the fungi     

Pathogen – Can cause disease.

Spore – A tiny dustlike particle expelled from the fungi in order to reproduce.

 

Fungi 2020

 

The cooler, wetter weather is perfect for some fungi and slime moulds to bloom.

 

White saddle, (Helvella crispa). 15th October 2020

 

White Saddle (Helvella Crispa) can be found under beech trees at the end of summer where it is thought to have a mutually beneficial relationship with the tree. The mycelium from the fungi connecting to the roots of the tree to bring in more water and nutrients and taking nutrients that the tree does not need for itself.

It prefers to be by busy paths and this one can be found under a large beech tree next to the main path through the woods where it seemed to like the dryness of the beech nut cases.

It has a broad saddle-shaped cap and there are large holes in the stem which makes it easy to identify.

 

 

 

Stump Puffballs growing on buried wood. 14th October 2020

 

 

 

Stump Puffballs, (Lycoperdon pyriforme) is another wood rot fungus and is different from the Common Puffball as it grows on tree stumps and dead wood, and is pearshaped, These look as if they are growing out of the ground but there will be a dead branch or dead roots buried underneath them. 

Puffballs start out round but develop a pore (hole) in the top which the spores are puffed through. Puffballs can release seven trillion spores each with only one or two becoming new puffballs.

These puffballs in the picture are very young but will turn darker as they mature.

 

 

 

Crystal Brain 8th October 2020

 

Crystal Brain, (Myxarium nucleatum) is a jelly fungus associated with rotting wood (saprobic). It particularly likes our very old beech trees and the very wet weather helps it to display its gelatinous fruiting bodies that can coalesce into one brain-like structure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amethyst Deceiver 8th October 2020

 

One of the jewels of the woods, the Amethyst Deceiver, (Laccaria laccata). So called because of its beautiful colour and because it changes shape and colour as it ages.

Tiny and well hidden in the autumn leaves but can be spotted under many of the beech trees in our woods where it has a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship with the tree sharing nutrients.

 

The gills

 

 

 

The pattern of the gills is quite distinctive. Widely spaced and the same colour as the cap

 

 

 

 

 

Wrinkled Crust. Phlebia radiata. 8th October 2020

 

 

Some fungus does not develop into a cap or bracket but will stay flat to the wood they are living on forming a crust. These fungi are resupinate fungi and Wrinkled Crust  (Phlebia radiate) does not even lift its edge off its host but creeps along as an orange waxy crinkled crust until the new small patches are joined together. Its mycelium reaches into the wood withdrawing nutrients and causing the wood to decay and crumble.

 

 

 

 

 

Mycena inclinata. 6th October 2020

 

The rotting wood in Childwall Woods makes it a wonderful place for Saprobic mushrooms. those that get their nutrients from rotting wood, and this little Cluster mushroom, Mycena inclinata is found in abundance during the wetter days of autumn.

The ones in the photo are very young but will become open and become bell-shaped as they do.

 

 

 

 

Candlesnuff Fungus ( Xylaria Hypoxilon)

A tiny erect fruiting body dark at the base but powdery at the forked tip.

These fungi derive their nutrients from dying wood, not by photosynthesis and so prefers the dark damp places of our woos where there is rotting wood.

This is a bioluminescent fungus and emits a tiny amount of green light caused by phosphorus within it reacting to oxygen in the air.

 

 

 

Shaggy Scaleycaps ( Pholiota squarrosa)

These little show stoppers come in large groups and can often be found in Childwall Woods at this time of year nestling in the roots of Beech  trees.

The little conical caps flatten out with age to drop their spores.

 

 

Dead man’s Fingers, 4th October 2020

 

Dead Man’s Fingers, (Xylaria polymorpha)

You would be forgiven for thinking these grey points were nails sticking out of this rotting log, but they are the fruiting bodies of Xylaria polymorpha, saprobic fungi breaking down the wood for nutrients.

As its name suggests (Polymorpha) this can appear in many forms but mostly like little black or grey fingers.

The purpose of each ‘digit’ is to grow spores which ripen on the outside. A process that can take months, unlike most fungi which can do the job in days.

To find this fungus look around the base of old tree stumps or on the underside of old rotting logs, like this one

 

Common Bonnets 29th September 2020

 

 

 

Common Bonnets, ( Mycena galericulata)

Bonnets can be seen all over the woods covering fallen branches and logs, especially where the bark has fallen off and its mycelium can penetrate the wood. It is a saprobic mushroom living off dead and dying wood, breaking it down so that the nutrients it doesn’t want are returned to the soil.

 

 

 

Trembling Merulius  27th September 2020.

Trembling Merulius, (Phlebia tremellosa).

This stranger to our woods is a pink furry outcrop with a rubbery texture. Its underside is white when young but turns dark with age. There is no stem but has visible pores. You would be forgiven for thinking this was some leathery bracket but it is considered to be a crust fungus and is often called ‘Jelly rot’

Trembling Merulius, underside on a sunny day.

It is a decomposer,  feeding on the lignin in the wood and will only grow on dead logs and stumps of deciduous trees.

 

 

 

 

Purple Jellydisc 4th September 2020

 

Purple Jellydisc, ( Ascocoryne sarcoides)

This purple jelly outcrop can generally be found on beech logs wherever beech is growing. It is saprobic and helps to breakdown the wood it grows on.  The gelatinous growths start out spherical and then flat before turning cup-shaped as they mature. The spores form underneath the cups and appear as translucent dust particles.

The individual cups finally coalesce into one glutenous blob.

 

 

Parasol, 10th September 2020

 

 

A Shaggy Parasol, ( Chlorophyllum rhacodes).

The family of parasols are all impressive because of their large size.

This mushroom is not growing directly out of the tree but is using it as shelter from the sun preferring shady damp places. The shaggy parasol is widespread in Britain but not common and this one was hiding behind a beech tree near to the Countisbury Drive gate. They can cause a serious allergic reaction if eaten.

 

 

 

 

Birch Polypore, 20th September 2020

The Birch Polypore. (Piptoporus betulinus)

Childwall Woods has many brackets growing out of its ageing trees but not many like this. This is only seen on birch trees standing or fallen and is known for its medicinal properties.  It has been used as a tonic for the immune system, as an antiseptic to clean wounds and promote healing, antifungal and antiseptic and was found on Bronze Age man who may have used it to get rid of parasitic worms.

It is a parasitic fungus on living birch trees and can live on them for years, breaking them down, once they have fallen.

 

 

 

 

A very young Amanita Muscaria 19th September 2020

The Fly Agaric, (Amanita Muscaria) is the typical fairy story mushroom due to its colourful cap but this is not a mushroom to play with as it can cause severe illness if ingested and sometimes death. However, this pretty little mushroom has a beneficial, ‘symbiotic’ relationship with the trees that it grows beneath. In Childwall Woods, this and a few other Fly Agarics were growing under a small fir tree, where their mycelium would draw in water from further afield than the trees own roots and the fungal mycelium would draw on sugars from the roots that the tree does not need. This mycelium seems to have moved to the next fir tree along now and there is a new flush of Flt Agarics there.

80% of trees have symbiotic relationships of this kind.

 

 

 

Slime mould on a rotting log 8th September 2020

 

The cooler spell at the end of summer triggers the slime moulds to go into their reproductive stage and these little white curls on the old log pile are a Slime Mould (Stemonitis) and deserve a closer look.

The tubes, still white until they mature. Notice the thin stalk on each one.

Slime moulds are not fungi but belong to the family of Mycetozoa which means ‘fungus animals’ as they are free moving Amoebae that feed on bacteria and fungi. When conditions are right they come together to reproduce

 

 

The long tube-like strands are the reproductive stage of the slime mould and after new spores have developed they dry and are dispersed on the wind.

But describing this beautiful living organism cannot do it justice. Click here to watch Stemonitis pulsate and bloom.  

 

 

 

Giant Polypore – 10/8/20

This Giant Polypore, (Meripilus giganteus) is growing on an old beech stump near to the main entrance of the woods which it shares with many Artists polypores, (Ganoderma applanatum).

It breaks down the lignin in wood causing a ‘white rot’ which is not a problem on this tree stump but is part of the decomposing process performed by fungi.

It particularly likes beech wood but will attack most broadleaf species. It is recognised by its multilayers and by its flesh darkening quickly when bruised.

Considered inedible in the UK, young specimens are consumed in Japan.

 

 

 

 

Lumpy brackets on rotting beechwood. 11/8/20

 

 

These Trametes gibbosa, (commonly known as Lumpy brackets),  have been on this log since last year and gathered a thick coating of moss over the wetter months.

Now warmer weather has arrived a new growth of white fungus is pushing out from under the green.

Growing here on an old beech log, forming rosettes which are characteristic of the species.

 

 

 

 

Common Milkcap, 13/8/20

 

This large, slightly concave mushroom hiding in the leaf litter is a Common Milkcap, (in the Genus Lactarius).

 

Its gills run down the stem and it extrudes a latex type milk if damaged.

 

 

 

 

 

Mild Milkcap 9/8/20

 

 

The Mild Milkcap, (Lactarius subdulcis) is so called because of the white latex milk that comes from its gills if they are damaged.

It is edible but not particularly good and grows in isolation or in pairs underneath beech trees. It is recognisable from its concave brown cap and pale crowded gills underneath.

 

 

 

 

 

Oyster mushrooms 6/6/20

 

The Oyster Mushroom. (Pleurotus ostreatus), is often a welcome visitor to our woods, popping up in huge swathes across the top and sides of wet rotting tree trunks.

You may be more familiar with these mushrooms sitting in a box in the supermarket as they are cultivated commercially. These from the log tasted even better.

Oyster mushrooms are used industrially to decontaminate toxic and polluted environments. This process is known as Mycoremediation whereby the enzymes in the mushroom remove a wide array of toxins in the soil, toxins produced by industrial processes.

 

Young Suede Bolete 16/8/20

 

A young Suede Bolete, ( Xerocomus subtomentosus). A brown or tan mushroom on top of the cap but light yellow pores to disperse their spores on their underside. Cap covered in a suede-like skin.

A pretty little edible mushroom, it is found on the roots of broadleaf trees where it joins in a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship with the tree by sheathing the roots in its mycelia bringing in water and nutrients for the tree and in exchange taking carbohydrates that the tree has broken down.

Edible but not highly rated.

 

 

Alder tongue gall – 4/8/20

 

 

This very unusual growth was found on an Alder tree on the top field. It is the very unusual Alder tongue gall, (Taphrina alni). This fungal plant pathogen was not found in the UK until the 1940s and is still not a common sight.  It causes no harm to the tree but grows out of a young pseudocone (a female catkin)  where it changes colour from green to yellow and red then withers to brown. It emerged and had turned brown within a week on our top field where the same process will most likely occur again next August. Perhaps you will spot one?

 

 

Sulphur tufts growing on rotting roots, 4/8/20

 

Sulphur Tuft, (Hypholoma fasciculare) is a common sight in wooded areas in late summer and autumn. This is a poisonous mushroom that is difficult to identify as it changes with age.  Its crowded gills are light in colour when young but turn darker with age. The cap flattens as it ages and the dark sulphur-yellow gets lighter towards the edges.

They grow on rotting wood (saprobic) in large clumps and are to be avoided.

 

 

 

 

Artists Brackets, 1/8/20

Summer is the time for the Artist Brackets, (Ganoderma Applanatum) to return to life, and they are.  The large brackets that lay dormant through the winter are growing new white pores on the underside. The patch on the highest bracket will slowly spread until a new surface of pores is formed. The spores are produced by the pores year after year as these brackets can live for many years putting on new layers each year.

Known as a heartwood pathogen this fungus is rotting the tree from the inside destroying its heartwood, with only its fruiting bodies to indicate what is happening inside.

In some cultures, the large brackets are harvested for their therapeutic properties as it is claimed that they have anti-tumour, antibacterial and anti-fibrotic properties.

 

 

Sheathed Woodtuft, (Kuehneromyces Mutabilis) I/8/20

This rotting log In Childwall Woods, near to the site of the chapel (no longer standing) was covered with a troop of Sheathed Woodtuft, (Kuehneromyces Mutabilis) at the beginning of August. This pretty two-tone mushroom changes from dark to cinnamon colour as it dries out and the circles visible on the caps here are caused by that process.

This common little mushroom, found throughout the world is Soprobic ( extracts nutrients from rotting wood) helping to break down fallen or dead branches and stumps.

 

Split Gill underside 24/7/20

Split Gill, (Schizophyllum commune) is a tiny fuzzy bracket that emerges after rains in the warmer months. It was in the same spot in 2019, on the same fallen log.

Underneath the tiny brackets are like beautiful Chinese fans and are a delicate pink.

This tiny mushroom is prized in many countries for its medicinal properties and is being researched by the medicinal industry for its immunomodulatory, antifungal, antineoplastic and antiviral properties. Although known for the beneficial substances it contains it is also recognised as a cause of human respiratory disease’

It has 23,328 mating types (sexes) and many combinations can result in a fertile pairing. A very unusual but beautiful little mushroom.

 

Wood Ears 9/7/20

 

 

 

The new Wood Ears, Auricularia auricula-judae have emerged on old dying branches in the woods. An edible fungus and an eastern delicacy these jelly fungi are quite easily recognised. Prized for their use in soups in Chinese cuisine. Not very inviting if you ask me. I think I’ll give this one a miss.

 

 

 

Common Mazegill ( Datronia mollis) – 4/7/20

 

The fungi shown below is a common crust fungus known as Common Mazegill (Datronia mollis)

This type of fungus that grows on the underside of rotting branches horizontally is a resupinate (clinging like a crust) fungus, using the wood it is feeding on to protect its reproductive surface underneath.  It is a polypore meaning it has many tubes clustered together to produce its spores and it lies upside down to give the spores the best possible chance of falling to the ground to form new fungi.

It is very sensitive to orientation and can change its form according to conditions, sometimes presenting as a bracket or protruding growth or a crust, and because of this has been given many different names.

 

 

A fairy Inkcap found in Childwall Woods on an old log. 17/6/20

 

This little lone specimen is a Fairy Inkcap, (Caprinellus disseminatus). It is also known as the trooping Crumble Cap as it is usually found in large groups but is delicate and crumbles if touched.

Rarely seen alone as this one is but usually in groups covering fallen tree roots or stumps.  It is Soprobic (lives on rotting wood ) and changes colour from white to dark grey in a day or two, but unlike other inkcaps does not turn to ink as it matures.

 

 

 

Small Staghorn, Calocera cornea on a beech log 4/7/20

 

A very wet, felled beech tree is the perfect place to see Small Staghorn, (Calocera cornea).

These tiny yellow fruiting bodies push out of wet deciduous tree trunks in small waxy bunches. Its Latin name meaning beautiful waxy horns is a perfect description of this tiny wood rot fungus. It likes damp shady places and can be seen all year round but mostly in Autumn.

An old tree stump is a perfect place for a variety of fungus and this one had 2 different kinds growing on it.

 

Pale Staghorn 4/7/20

 

 

A similar tiny Staghorn is the Pale Staghorn, (Calocera pallidospathulata)

This translucent white or pale yellow jelly fungus is a wood rot fungus with flatter horns and sometimes flatter branches than the small staghorn fungus. Also seen in shady wet wooded areas on dead wood.

 

 

 

Two varieties share a rotting stump 4/7/20

 

The lovely ochre brackets are Trametes Ochracea, (Ochre Bracket).

It is one of the Trametes family meaning ‘Thin’ and its colour, a gentle ochre.  It is very similar to Trametes hirsuta which is a more hairy specimen. It favours dead or fallen wood of deciduous trees and this was growing from an old beech stump.

The back tar-like fungus is the usual wood pathogen Brittle Cinder, Kretzchmaria Deusta which Has been described previously as one of the main causes for healthy trees to decay and fall. It too favours broadleaved trees but doesn’t mind if they are already dead. It will proceed to break down any cellulose and lignin as left in the tree.

 

 

 

 

Clinging on to a branch dropped long ago is an outcrop of Bleeding Oak Crust, (Stereum gausapatum.)

This is a common wood rot fungus in the woods and has a velvety top when young. It is usually found on oak which it covers like a crust just lifting at the edges.

 

 

 

Very old logs are essential a variety of fungal life in a forest.  New logs may still have their bark on to offer some protection against attack but once that has gone the spores of the wood-rot fungi and slime moulds can take hold.

 

This very old log in the dampest darkest part of the woods is a perfect example with outcrops of brackets and slime moulds growing on old dead fungus.

The Bracket fungi or shelf fungi, (growing in the bottom right-hand corner of the picture) are polypores that characteristically produce shelf- or bracket-shaped fruiting bodies called conks. They lie horizontally in groups or sometimes individually and there are over 1000 known to science.

Polypores are important agents of wood rot and actively break down the wood recycling the nutrients back into the soil. They are more common in old woods such as ours where trees are left to rot after felling and not taken as timber. You will see many different wood rot conks on the old and fallen trees of Childwall Woods.

 

 

 

  Carnival Candy  Slime Mould (Mold)   

Slime Moulds are not fungi but belong to the Kingdom of Protozoa, but they deserve to be on this page because of their curious and interesting lifestyle.

We identified the first Slime Mould on this page in April and described the False Puffball which is not a puffball at all.  Carnival Candy Slime Mould does not pretend to be anything but a slime mould.  A beautiful fluffy pink one.

Slime Moulds are individual single-celled Amoebae that come together when conditions are right. They combine with another compatible Amoeba and form a fruiting body on a stick resembling a tiny candy floss. Look closely at the photograph.  For more information on Slime Moulds visit Warwick University School of Life Sciences for a wonderful explanation.

The Carnival Candy Slime Moulds seemed to turn brown with age on the old fungus near to the brackets above, but the young pink clusters were visible nearby.

 

 

 

These tiny white tubes are also Slime Mould –  (Stemonitopsis Typhina).

If you look closely you can see tiny stalks on some of the tubes but these are tiny smooth white fruiting bodies. They have the same genesis as the Carnival Candy Slime Mould, that of free-living single-celled organisms (Amoeba). After merging with another compatible Amoeba and forming the fruiting body called sporangia they die and become slime. Their spores released from the sporangia go on to produce new amoeba when they land on damp wood.  We certainly have enough of that in Childwall Woods.

 

 

 

 

 

Every now and then you will come across a little gem of a mushroom that will catch your breath with its beauty. The Collared Parachute, (Marasmius rotula) is one such mushroom.

Collared Parachute Marasmius rotula 4/7/20

These tiny delicate little mushrooms are common in the woods loving wood debris in the form of deciduous tree roots, branches and trigs. Turn it over to see wide-spaced gills coming together in a collar around the stem. It is a wood rot species but one of the prettiest of many. It prefers warm weather and can be seen May to November in Childwall Woods

 

 

Polyporus tuberaster  

Polyporus tuberaster with scaley top

Polyporus tuberaster 23/6/20

 

 

This inconspicuous mushroom is infrequently seen in Britain.  Its underneath shows it to be a polypore. It releases its spores through pores, not gills.

 

 

 

 

It is a Saprobic (wood rot) mushroom favouring dropped branches as in the pictures, or buried wood.

This one was found in the Folly on a broken branch. The cap is often smooth not scaley and can be darker in colour.

 

Dryad’s Saddle 16th June 2020

 

Dryad’s Saddle, (Cerioporus squamous) aka Polyporus squamosus. Named after a wood nymph, this large wood rot bracket and is a common edible mushroom in our woods. It is often seen growing out of dying broad-leaf trees. This one is on a pile of beech wood. When growing out of a trunk as was seen below in April, it forms overlapping tiers with the distinctive mottled pattern on top but when growing vertically can form the deep funnel that you see here.

If you look underneath you will see tubes packed close together forming pores identifying it as a polypore.

It appears early and pops up throughout the year on rotting tree stumps, woodpiles and buried tree roots

Although edible I have been told it is not particularly palatable and young specimens only should be picked. IF YOU ARE SURE YOU HAVE IDENTIFIED IT CORRECTLY

 

 

Chicken of the woods 10/6/20

 

 

 

Chicken of the Woods  ( Laetiporus sulphureus)  is a common edible mushroom found throughout the world and gets its name from its similarity to chicken when cooked. HOWEVER, this beautiful specimen was growing out of a dead Yew Tree and so was poisonous.

Yew Trees have a deadly toxin, Taxine, which is transferred to the fungus growing from them. Chicken of the woods is the only fungus that you will find on yew trees because it tolerates the toxin, but that makes it poisonous and sometimes deadly if eaten.

This illustrates the importance of researching every mushroom you are going to eat AND where it came from.

 

 

 

 

 

Stinkhorn Eggs 27th April 2020

Stinkhorn Eggs 27th April 2020

 

On 27th April a little cluster of stinkhorn eggs was found in a secluded part of the woods.  You will find that post further down the page.

 

 

 

 

Stinkhorn Fungus (Phallus Impudicus) 28/5/20

 

Just one month later, if you were to walk in that same secluded spot you would notice the sweet sickly smell of rotting flesh.  A stinkhorn egg had hatched, the Stinkhorn Fungus  (Phallus Impudicus) had emerged and was signalling its arrival with a sickly odour.

Its tall upright white stem supports a dark slimy spore cap which gives off the strong smell of rotting flesh to attract flies. The flies devour the spore filled slime and carry the spores to new sites. That was why it waited until warm weather before emerging from its egg. It needed flies to spread its spores.

This is the fruiting body of the organism that lives underground. A network of mycelium taking its nutrients from the rotting wood all around.

This was the first fruiting body to emerge, there are more eggs on this site waiting for their turn to hatch, maybe you will see one.

Update 8/20: There have been 16 stinkhorns in a 20-metre radius, since May suggesting that the mycelium network underground is also that large. There have also been stinkhorn sitings and or should I say ‘stinkings’ of these wonderful fruiting bodies throughout the woods which has never happened in previous years. 2020 – the year of the stinkhorn invasion in Childwall woods.

 

 

 

These tiny orange mushrooms were found growing on an old tree stump. It is a tiny outcrop of Velvet Shank (Flammulina velutipes) which tend to grow on dead wood but may be seen on diseased living trees. Sometimes seen in huge colonies that can cover a tree stump. It will slowly break down the wood as it takes out the nutrients it needs.

The stem is pale when young but darkens with age until black. If you look closely you can see the stems darkening at the bottom.  – 24/5/20

 

 

Hollow trees are a wonderful habitat for many living things but not usually an Artist’s Bracket (Ganoderma applanatum) like this one,

Artist’s Bracket (Ganoderma applanatum) 27/4/20

The Artist’s Bracket is so-called as the white underneath is a perfect place to draw, the soft white growing back over the drawing within weeks. 

 

 

 

Willow Bracket (Phellinus igniarius) 16/4/20

There are many kinds of brackets all around the Woods. I found this one on a willow tree in February but it has obviously been hiding for many months by the look of its cracked edge. One of many Willow Brackets taking down the tree the spores have managed to penetrate.

 

Dryad’s Saddle (Cerioporus squamosus) 2/4/20

 

This strange mushroom is the Dryad’s Saddle and is one of the edible types of fungus that grow out of old wood.  Quite easily identified by its feathered patterning on top and thick stems. Of course, be very careful to make a clear identification before assuming anything is edible.

 

 

 

 

 

The little wet fellow below, the Porcelain Mushroom, is another wood rot mushroom that prefers beech wood and you may have taken the weight off your feet on the log by the path where this was discretely growing.

A Porcelain Mushroom (Oudemansiella mucida) 10/4/20

 

 

A Porcelain Mushroom showing gills. 10/4/20

This delicate mushroom has a coat of mucus making it look wet but once that is washed off it is considered a good edible species.   The Porcelain Mushroom like all fungi has a secret weapon to keep it healthy while it produces spores and this one has an effective fungicide to protect it from other fungi.

 

 

Glistening Inkcaps (Coprinellus micaceus) 29/3/20

 

 

 

 

Inkcaps come in all shapes and sizes, some edible and some dangerous. These Glistening Inkcaps are hiding in a nook in a hollow tree, they don’t need the wind to blow their spores or an insect to carry them off so they hide in the dark until their spores are ready then they turn to ink and drip them back into the earth where they came from.

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mazegill (Datronia mollis) 10/2/20

The underneath of the Mazegill showing the tubes where the spores are formed.

 

 

This Common Mazegill fungus lies flat against the rotting wood extracting the nutrients that it needs and breaking down the structure of the wood.

 

Beech Woodwart ( Hypoxylon fragiforme) 20/4/20

Beech Woodwart (Hypoxylon fragiforme) is a common wood fungus that finds Beech trees most hospitable. It changes colour as it ages turning from pale pink to dark brown/black. This is a poisonous fungus although why anyone would want to eat it is a mystery.

 

Coral Spot Fungi (Nectria cinnabarina) 18/3/20

Coral Spot is a plant pathogen that moves in to colonize the plant when something else has weakened it. In this case, the branch has dropped and the fungi will complete its job of returning the nutrients locked up inside, to the earth.

 

Brittle Cinder (Kretzschmaria deusta) 12/1/20

 

The pretty grey and white patches on this rotting wood are indicate that this log is infected with Kretzschmaria deusta commonly known as Brittle Cinder. It is a pathogenic fungus that infects broadleaf trees and consumes the cellulose and lignin in the wood causing it to soften and make the tree unstable. This will take many years depending on the size of the tree but this tiny fungus will eventually bring down the tallest trees.

 

 

False Puff Ball (Reticularia Lycoperdon) 10/4/20

The False Puffball is not a puffball at all, in fact, it is a slime mould with an alternative name of Enteridium Lycoperdon.

Slime Mould is the most wonderful life form.

A slime mould is made up of individual organisms that roam freely over their host but congregate together to form one organism for the sole purpose of reproduction.

(See Wikipedia. for more information).

This beautiful white lump is the slime mould individuals coming together. It will become slimy as it develops then the white dries and cracks off like a thin eggshell to expose a brown mass underneath as the spores are released.

Amazing ?!

 

Stinkhorn Eggs (Phallus Impudicus) 27/4/20

 

 

You would be forgiven for thinking this little cluster was a group of puffballs but you would be mistaken. If you look closely you will see they are different in texture and not quite so round as a young puffball. They are the first stage of the Stinkhorn known as Stinkhorn Eggs.

 

 

 

A stinkhorn egg cut in half to show the embryonic fungus waiting to emerge.

 

The embryonic fungus inside the egg will push up through the top of the egg sac when conditions are right which is usually the summer months when there are many flies around.

 

The tip of the stinkhorn is covered in a jelly that stinks of rotting flesh to attract flies who devour it. The flies will carry off the jelly which has the stinkhorn spores in it and so the spores are scattered far and wide.

 

 

 

The pores themselves don’t become eggs but when they settle on a suitable site, with buried rotting wood in the ground, then they will set up a network of mycelium underground sending up fruiting bodies, eggs, to eventually reproduce. The eggs will then develop slowly through spring but not emerge until there are flies around in summer.

There will be no images of the stinkhorns until they emerge later in the year but if you would like a preview click HERE to see what Phallus Impudicus will look like.

 

That’s all the fungus for now but there will be more to come.

If you see any new fungus in our woods and fields, let us have a photo for the page.   bcfcwf@gmail.com

 

 

 

Fungi from  2014 to 2019

Fungi are very specific about their habitat. These Fairy inkcaps, (Coprinellus disseminatus )  make a spectacular show on old stumps and logs.

Fairy Inkcaps. Coprinellus disseminatus 29th Sept 2019

 

Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) love to grow on fallen beech trees like this one. Their oyster shaped fan can be fluted as seen here. Not only are these beautiful mushrooms choice edible mushrooms but they are medicinal too and have antiviral properties.

 

 

 

 

 

Poisonous Sulphur Tuft, (Hypholoma fasciculare). It is very common in all woodlands from September onwards and is certainly a mushroom to avoid picking. It is poisonous enough to make you ill for a few days although it may not be fatal.  It loves rotting wood and is an agent for decomposition.

Here are Sulphur Tuft mushrooms growing prolifically on the roots of an upturned tree breaking down the dead material and recycling it. These are decomposers.

Young Tooth Crust. 28th December 2019

Toothed Crust (Basidioradulum) when young is similar to an open flower. It is resupinate ( lies close on to the branch) and is individual rounded spots which slowly coalesce into patches of irregular waxy folds and ripples.

Only found on decaying wood,

 

Turkeytail (Trametese Versicolor) below.  You will see this fungus throughout the woods in many different colours. It likes old wood and tree stumps and displays bands of different colours, always ending with a white edge. It likes all seasons. 

Turkeytail is also known for its medicinal properties

Turkeytail comes in many different colours but always has a white rim.

 

     

Bracket Fungus (Polypores)

You will see polypores of many different shapes sizes and colours on tree trunks throughout Childwall Woods. Some will exploit a small fracture in a living tree and live off the tree for many years showing bands of growth for each year. Some polypores prefer fallen trees and play an important part in the ecosystem of the woods by breaking down the deadwood and recycling its nutrients back into the soil. All are spectacular. See for yourself. All of these wonderful specimens were photographed in Childwall Woods.

 

 

 

Polypores do not have gills like mushrooms but release their spores through tubes. This one releases thousands of cocoa coloured spores causing it to appear as if it’s been dusted in chocolate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Birch Polypore, Fomitopsis betulina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Many kinds of fungi make their homes on trees, living and dead, and below you will see a selection of fruiting bodies that you may see when walking in the woods.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Others exploit a break in the tree bark to establish a hold and draw their nutrients. These are parasitic as they live off the tree without giving anything back.

 

 

 

 

Puffballs. There are many kinds of puffballs and they all are a closed mushroom without gills and an open cap. They grow their spores inside and puff them out of the top in a cloud of fine dust.

True puffballs have no stem and an aperture can be seen after the spores are ejected. See below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Puffballs (Lycoperdon perlatum) Below. These are stemmed and have a spiny appearance when young. These white puffballs darken with age and are usually brown by the time the aperture appears in the top. They are widespread throughout the woods.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earthstars

These were at the edge of the carriageway

 

 

Collared Earthstars  (Geastrum triplex) are similar to puffballs but the outer skin has peeled back and split to form the star shape. this pushes the centre spore-bearing sphere up to maximize dispersion.

 

 

This pretty fungus likes to grow in colonies under the oaks in the woods where it helps the tree to absorb phosphorus and other elements from the soil. In return, the tree shares carbohydrates with the earth star. A perfect symbiotic relationship.

 

These young inkcaps are new and pink inside. Edible and delicious at this stage. Only ever to be eaten when pink and young. Photo – J McCombs

There are mushrooms that always steal the show such as these Shaggy Inkcaps which slowly turn to liquid so as to drip their spores down into the soil to find some more rotting wood to feed on. These were at the end of the carriageway.

These shaggy Inkcaps have already rolled back their cap to drip their inky spores back into the earth. Photo – J McCombs

 

This bright orange group of Rustgills are breaking down the old dead tree in the clearing and looking amazing while doing it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This fungus is the Giant Polypore, Meripilus giganteus mentioned previously  Not to be recommended as an edible species.

Here it is in 2019 on the same beech stump as it appeared on again in August 2020.  It can also be found on the roots of trees, usually oaks but any broadleaf rotting wood.

When young the brackets are thick and can be mistaken for Chicken of the Woods but they thin out with age.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jelly mushrooms like these Wood Ears (Auricularia auricula) grow out of the host tree weakening it as they take the nutrients.

 

 

 

Witch’s Butter,  (Tremella mesenterica)

This jelly fungus is a parasitic type of fungus common in woodland throughout Britain and Europe. It is sometimes called Yellow Brain due to its convoluted appearance when larger than this specimen. Although it may not look very appetising it is known as an ancient Chinese addition to soup to thicken it and is being researched for its anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties. This small specimen was growing on a branch covered in Lichen on the top field.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria ) is undoubtedly one of the most striking mushrooms you may see in the woods.  It is poisonous though rarely deadly and the colour red will tell you to beware. It has a symbiotic relationship with the trees that it lives under, breaking down minerals for them and taking nutrients from the tree for itself. It prefers Beech but this one was growing under the large old Yew Tree near the clearing in the woods in 2014.

 

 

Xylaria hypoxylon, a member of the bioluminescent family of fungi

 

 

 

The tiny fungus seen here on its raft of rotting wood is a  bioluminescent fungus called  Xylaria hypoxylon.  Bioluminescent fungi emit light continually due to a chemical reaction as phosphorus accumulated within the mycelium reacts with oxygen and other chemicals in the fungus. Unfortunately, the amount of light is very weak and not noticeable to the human eye. Its common name is Candlesnuff Fungi and is quite common in the woods on rotting wood

 

 

Amethyst Deceivers – courtesy of John McCombs

 

 

 

The Amethyst deceiver (Laccaria amethystina);

This beautiful fungi loves the damp woodland floor and is hard to spot when it is wet as it is a wonderful purple colour but as it dries out it becomes a pale grey.

 

 

This striking mushroom can easily be identified by its gill pattern shown here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This little grey mushroom is a rarity in our woods it is Elfin Saddle – Helvella lacunosa. The ‘Lacunosa’ part of its Latin name means ‘with holes’ and the stem is visibly perforated. This little gem can be all shades of grey and is a rare visitor to our woods.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clouded Funnel, Clitocybe Nebularis, 

Photo by D Holland

 

 

 

 

One of many funnel mushrooms that can be seen in the woods. This fungus prefers broadleaf litter which it breaks down for nutrients.

Here a colony can be seen growing in a line under deciduous trees on the top field.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Gallery of Fungi in Childwall Woods and Fields

  

  

 

 

 

 

                                            

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hypholoma fasciculare- Sulphur Tuft – Photo by J McCombs

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

Lacrymaria lacrymabunda – Weeping Widow – Photo by J McCombs

 

Shaggy Pholiota, Pholiota squarrosa

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spectacular Rustgill, Agaricus spectabilis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If you have some pictures of fungi in Childwall Woods or Fields please send them to bcfcwf@gmail.com

Not all mushrooms are edible. Some are poisonous and some are deadly.

Make sure you know what kind of fungus you have if you are thinking of eating it.

 

Author: B Cameron  Secretary Friends of Childwall Woods and Fields

All photographs are the authors own unless indicated otherwise.

Resources used.

Francesca Bosco and Chiara Mollea – Mycoremediation in Soil – https://www.intechopen.com/books/environmental-chemistry-and-recent-pollution-control-approaches/mycoremediation-in-soil

Jordan. M  Mushroom Magic – 1989

Dickson G Green Guide Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and Europe. – 1996

Kew Science, – http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:indexfungorum.org:names:161267

Wikipedia .org – https://en.wikipedia.org

First Nature – https://www.first-nature.com/fungi/ganoderma-applanatum.php

First Nature – https://www.first-nature.com/fungi/xylaria-hypoxylon.php

Nature Picture Library – https://www.naturepl.com

Green Man Conservation – http://www.greenmanconservation.co.uk

Wild Food – https://www.wildfooduk.com

The Woodland Trust – https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk

Friends of Fineshade -https://www.fineshade.org.uk

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypore#cite_note-1

 

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